雇用合约能约束离职的员工从事同行(Restraint of Trade)?

  1. 有些雇主会在员工辞职前,要求他们签署一份合约,内容是约束员工离职后,不能在限制的期限内从事相同行业的工作范围。在法律上,一旦签署了合约,合约会对双方具有约束力。
  2. 但是,这条约是不平等的,因此是无效,没有法律效应。
  3. 根据1950年合同法令第28条文 (约束交易的协议无效- agreement in restraint of trade void),除了该条文所述的3种情况下,约束离职后的员工的从事职业的条款对普通员工是没有法律效力的。
  4. 1950年合同法令第28条文注明,此条约在三种情况下是有效的:
  • 出售商誉方不为该商业的限制协议。售商誉方同意买者于特定的地区不操作相似的商业。假设该限制与该商业的本质有关,对法庭而言是合理的 。
  • 解散合伙前的合伙人之间的协议。 正在或预期将解散合伙的合伙人同意,他们中的一些或全部合伙人,于特定的地区不从事与合伙相似的业务。
  • 于合伙存续期间所定协议。合伙人可同意,在合伙存续期间他们当中的一些或全部合伙人,将不从事某种商业,并不限于合伙业务。

 

Contracts Act 1950

28.Agreement in restraint of trade void
Every agreement by which anyone is restrained from exercising a lawful profession, trade, or business of any kind, is to that extent void.

  • Saving of agreement not to carry on business of which goodwill is sold

Exception 1—One who sells the goodwill of a business may agree with the buyer to refrain carrying on a similar business, within specified local limits, so long as the buyer, or any person deriving title to the goodwill from him, carries on a like business therein:
Provided that such limits appear to the court reasonable, regard being had to the nature of the business.

  • of agreement between partners prior to dissolution

Exception 2—Partners may, upon or in anticipation of a dissolution of the
partnership, agree that some or all of them will not carry on a business similar to that of the partnership within such local limits as are referred to in exception

  • or during continuance of partnership

Exception 3—Partners may agree that some one or all of them will not carry on any business, other than that of the partnership, during the continuance of the partnership.

 

Thanks to Rebecca Leong

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雇用合约能约束离职的员工从事同行(Restraint of Trade)?